Added info about unicode in the man file.
[clinton/abcde.git] / abcde.1
1 .TH abcde 1
3 abcde \- Grab an entire CD and compress it to Ogg/Vorbis, MP3, FLAC, Ogg/Speex and/or MPP/MP+(Musepack) format.
5 .B abcde
6 .I [options] [tracks]
8 Ordinarily, the process of grabbing the data off a CD and encoding it, then
9 tagging or commenting it, is very involved.
10 .BR abcde
11 is designed to automate this. It will take an entire CD and convert it into
12 a compressed audio format - Ogg/Vorbis, MPEG Audio Layer III, Free Lossless
13 Audio Codec (FLAC), Ogg/Speex or MPP/MP+(Musepack). With one command, it will:
14 .TP
15 .B *
16 Do a CDDB query over the Internet to look up your CD or use a locally stored CDDB entry
17 .TP
18 .B *
19 Grab an audio track (or all the audio CD tracks) from your CD
20 .TP
21 .B *
22 Normalize the volume of the individual file (or the album as a single unit)
23 .TP
24 .B *
25 Compress to Ogg/Vorbis, MP3, FLAC, Ogg/Speex and/or MPP/MP+(Musepack) format(s), all in one CD read
26 .TP
27 .B *
28 Comment or ID3/ID3v2 tag
29 .TP
30 .B *
31 Give an intelligible filename
32 .TP
33 .B *
34 Calculate replaygain values for the individual file (or the album as a single unit)
35 .TP
36 .B *
37 Delete the intermediate WAV file (or save it for later use)
38 .TP
39 .B *
40 Repeat until finished
42 .TP
43 .B \-1
44 Encode the whole CD in a single file. The resulting file uses the CD title
45 for tagging. If the resulting format is a flac file with an embeded cuesheet,
46 the file can be used as a source for creating other formats.
47 .TP
48 .B \-a [actions]
49 Comma-delimited list of actions to perform. Can be one or more of:
50 cddb, read, normalize, encode, tag, move, replaygain, playlist, clean. Normalize
51 and encode imply read. Tag implies cddb, read, encode. Move implies
52 cddb, read, encode, tag. Replaygain implies cddb, read, encode, tag and move.
53 Playlist implies cddb. The default is to do all actions except normalize,
54 replaygain and playlist.
55 .TP
56 .B \-b
57 Enable batch mode normalization. See the BATCHNORM configuration variable.
58 .TP
59 .B \-B
60 Disable batch mode replaygain. It processes file by file to add the replaygain
61 information. See the NOBATCHREPLAYGAIN configuration vatiable.
62 .TP
63 .B \-c [filename]
64 Specifies an additional configuration file to parse. Configuration options
65 in this file override those in /etc/abcde.conf or $HOME/.abcde.conf.
66 .TP
67 .B \-C [discid]
68 Allows you to resume a session for
69 .I discid
70 when you no longer have the CD available (abcde will automatically resume if
71 you still have the CD in the drive). You must have already finished at
72 least the "read" action during the previous session.
73 .TP
74 .B \-d [devicename | filename]
75 CD\-ROM block device that contains audio tracks to be read. Alternatively, a
76 single-track flac file with embeded cuesheet.
77 .TP
78 .B \-D
79 Capture debugging information (you'll want to redirect this \- try 'abcde \-D
80 2>logfile')
81 .TP
82 .B \-e
83 Erase information about encoded tracks from the internal status file, to enable
84 other encodings if the wav files have been kept.
85 .TP
86 .B \-g
87 Enable lame's \-\-nogap option. See the NOGAP variable. WARNING: lame's
88 \-\-nogap disables the Xing mp3 tag. This tag is required for mp3 players to
89 correctly display track lengths when playing variable-bit-rate mp3 files.
90 .TP
91 .B \-h
92 Get help information.
93 .TP
94 .B \-j [number]
95 Start [number] encoder processes at once. Useful for SMP systems. Overrides
96 the MAXPROCS configuration variable. Set it to "0" when using distmp3 to avoid
97 local encoding processes.
98 .TP
99 .B \-k
100 Keep the wav files after encoding.
101 .TP
102 .B \-l
103 Use the low-diskspace algorithm. See the LOWDISK configuration variable.
104 .TP
105 .B \-L
106 Use a local CDDB repository. See CDDBLOCALDIR variable.
107 .TP
108 .B \-n
109 Do not query CDDB database. Create and use a template. Edit the template to
110 provide song names, artist(s), ...
111 .TP
112 .B \-N
113 Non interactive mode. Do not ask anything from the user. Just go ahead.
114 .TP
115 .B \-m
116 Create DOS-style playlists, modifying the resulting one by adding CRLF line
117 endings. Some hardware players insist on having those to work.
118 .TP
119 .B \-M
120 Create a CUE file with information about the CD. Together with the possibility
121 of creating a single file (see option "\-1"), one can recreate the original CD.
122 If the cuesheet is embeded in a flac single file it can be used as source for
123 encoding other formats.
124 .TP
125 .B \-o [filetype][:filetypeoptions]
126 Select output type. Can be "vorbis" (or "ogg"), "mp3", "flac", "spx", "mpc" or
127 "wav". Specify a comma-delimited list of output types to obtain all specified
128 types. See the OUTPUTTYPE configuration variable. One can pass options to the
129 encoder for a specific filetype on the command line separating them with a
130 colon. The options must be escaped with double-quotes.
131 .TP
132 .B \-p
133 Pads track numbers with 0\'s.
134 .TP
135 .B \-r [hosts...]
136 Remote encode on this comma-delimited list of machines using distmp3. See
137 the REMOTEHOSTS configuration variable.
138 .TP
139 .B \-s [fields...]
140 List, separated by comas, the fields to be shown in the CDDB parsed entries.
141 Right now it only uses "year" and "genre".
142 .TP
143 .B \-S [speed]
144 Set the speed of the CD drive. Needs CDSPEED and CDSPEEDOPTS set properly
145 and both the program and device must support the capability.
146 .TP
147 .B \-t [number]
148 Start the numbering of the tracks at a given number. It only affects the
149 filenames and the playlist. Internal (tag) numbering remains the same.
150 .TP
151 .B \-T [number]
152 Same as \-t but changes also the internal (tag) numbering. Keep in mind that
153 the default TRACK tag for MP3 is $T/$TRACKS so it is changed to simply $T.
154 .TP
155 .B \-u
156 Set CDDBPROTOCOL to version 6, so that we retrieve UTF-8 encoded CDDB
157 information, and we tag and add comments with a proper encoding. This flag will
158 be removed and -U will be added to set it to version 5 once version 6 becomes
159 the default.
160 .TP
161 .B \-v
162 Show the version and exit
163 .TP
164 .B \-V
165 Be a bit more verbose. On slow networks the CDDB requests might give the
166 sensation nothins is happening.
167 .TP
168 .B \-x
169 Eject the CD when all tracks have been read. See the EJECTCD configuration
170 variable.
171 .TP
172 .B \-w [comment]
173 Add a comment to the tracks ripped from the CD.
174 .TP
175 .B \-W [number]
176 Concatenate CD\'s. It uses the number provided to define a comment "CD #" and
177 to modify the numbering of the tracks, starting with "#01".
178 .TP
179 .B [tracks]
180 A list of tracks you want abcde to process. If this isn't specified, abcde
181 will process the entire CD. Accepts ranges of track numbers -
182 "abcde 1-5 7 9" will process tracks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9.
184 Each track is, by default, placed in a separate file named after the track
185 in a subdirectory named after the artist under the current directory.
186 This can be modified using the OUTPUTFORMAT and VAOUTPUTFORMAT
187 variables in your abcde.conf. Each file is given an extension identifying
188 its compression format, 'vorbis' for '.ogg', '.mp3', '.flac', '.spx', '.mpc', or '.wav'.
190 abcde sources two configuration files on startup - /etc/abcde.conf and
191 $HOME/.abcde.conf, in that order.
192 .TP
193 The configuration options stated on those files can ba overriden by providing
194 the appropiate flags at runtime.
195 .TP
196 The configuration variables have to be set as follows:
197 .TP
198 .B VARIABLE=value
199 Except when "value" needs to be quoted or otherwise interpreted. If other
200 variables within "value" are to be expanded upon reading the configuration
201 file, then double quotes should be used. If they are only supposed to be
202 expanded upon use (for example OUTPUTFORMAT) then single quotes must be used.
203 .TP
204 All sh escaping/quoting rules apply.
205 .TP
206 Here is a list of options abcde recognizes:
207 .TP
209 Specifies a server to use for CDDB lookups.
210 .TP
212 Specifies the Hello information to send to the CDDB server. The CDDB
213 protocol requires you to send a valid username and hostname each time you
214 connect. The format of this is username@hostname.
215 .TP
217 Specifies a directory where we store a local CDDB repository. The entries must
218 be standard CDDB entries, with the filename being the DISCID value. Other
219 CD playing and ripping programs (like Grip) store the entries under ~/.cddb
220 and we can make use of those entries.
221 .TP
223 Store local copies of the CDDB entries under the $CDDBLOCALDIR directory.
224 .TP
226 Actually use the stored copies of the CDDB entries. Can be overriden using the
227 "-L" flag (if is CDDBUSELOCAL in "n"). If an entry is found, we always give
228 the choice of retrieving a CDDB entry from the internet.
229 .TP
231 Coma-separated list of fields we want to parse during the CDDB parsing.
232 Defaults to "year,genre".
233 .TP
235 Specifies the style of encoder to use for the Ogg/Vorbis encoder. Valid options
236 are \'oggenc\' (default for Ogg/Vorbis) and \'vorbize\'.
237 This affects the default location of the binary,
238 the variable to pick encoder command-line options from, and where the options
239 are given.
240 .TP
242 Specifies the style of encoder to use for the MP3 encoder. Valid options are
243 \'lame\' (default for MP3), \'gogo\', \'bladeenc\', \'l3enc\' and \'mp3enc\'.
244 Affects the same way as explained above for Ogg/Vorbis.
245 .TP
247 Specifies the style of encoder to use for the FLAC encoder. At this point only
248 \'flac\' is available for FLAC encoding.
249 .TP
251 Specifies the style of encoder to use for Speex encoder. At this point only
252 \'speexenc\' is available for Ogg/Speex encoding.
253 .TP
255 Specifies the style of encoder to use for MPP/MP+ (Musepack) encoder. At this
256 point we only have \'mppenc\' available, from
257 .TP
259 Specifies the style of normalizer to use. Valid options are \'default\'
260 and \'normalize'\ (and both run \'normalize-audio\'), since we only support it,
261 ATM.
262 .TP
264 Specifies the style of cdrom reader to use. Valid options are \'cdparanoia\',
265 \'debug\' and \'flac\'. It is used for querying the CDROM and obtain a list of
266 valid tracks and DATA tracks. The special \'flac\' case is used to "rip" CD
267 tracks from a single-track flac file.
268 .TP
270 Specifies the syntax of the program we use to read the CD CUE sheet. Right now
271 we only support \'mkcue\', but in the future other readers might be used.
272 .TP
274 It defaults to no, so if you want to keep those wavs ripped from your CD,
275 set it to "y". You can use the "-k" switch in the command line. The default
276 behaviour with KEEPWAVS set is to keep the temporary directory and the wav
277 files even you have requested the "clean" action.
278 .TP
280 If set to "y", it adds 0's to the file numbers to complete a two-number
281 holder. Useful when encoding tracks 1-9.
282 .TP
284 Set to "n" if you want to perform automatic rips, without user intervention.
285 .TP
287 Define the values for priorities (nice values) for the different CPU-hungry
288 processes: encoding (ENCNICE), CDROM read (READNICE) and distributed encoder
289 with distmp3 (DISTMP3NICE).
290 .TP
292 The following configuration file options specify the pathnames of their
293 respective utilities: LAME, TOOLAME, GOGO, BLADEENC, L3ENC, XINGMP3ENC, MP3ENC,
297 .TP
299 If you wish to specify command-line options to any of the programs abcde uses,
300 set the following configuration file options: LAMEOPTS, TOOLAMEOPTS, GOGOOPTS,
306 .TP
308 Set the value of the CDROM speed. The default is to read the disc as fast as
309 the reading program and the system permits. The steps are defined as 150kB/s
310 (1x).
311 .TP
313 The default actions to be performed when reading a disc.
314 .TP
315 .B CDROM
316 If set, it points to the CD-Rom device which has to be used for audio
317 extraction. Abcde tries to guess the right device, but it may fail. The special
318 \'flac\' option is defined to extract tracks from a single-track flac file.
319 .TP
321 Defined as "d" when using cdparanoia with an IDE bus and as "g" when using
322 cdparanoia with the ide-scsi emulation layer.
323 .TP
325 Specifies the directory to place completed tracks/playlists in.
326 .TP
328 Specifies the temporary directory to store .wav files in. Abcde may use up
329 to 700MB of temporary space for each session (although it is rare to use
330 over 100MB for a machine that can encode music as fast as it can read it).
331 .TP
333 Specifies the encoding format to output, as well as the default extension and
334 encoder. Defaults to "vorbis". Valid settings are "vorbis" (or "ogg")
335 (Ogg/Vorbis), "mp3" (MPEG-1 Audio Layer III), "flac" (Free Lossless Audio
336 Codec), "spx" (Ogg/Speex), "mpc" (MPP/MP+ (Musepack)) or "wav" (Microsoft
337 Waveform). Values like "vorbis,mp3" encode the tracks in both Ogg/Vorbis and
338 MP3 formats.
339 .br
340 For each value in OUTPUTTYPE, abcde expands a different process for encoding,
341 tagging and moving, so you can use the format placeholder, OUTPUT, to create
342 different subdirectories to hold the different types. The variable OUTPUT will
343 be 'vorbis', 'mp3', 'flac', 'spx' and/or 'mpc', depending on the OUTPUTTYPE you define.
344 For example
345 .br
347 .TP
349 Specifies the format for completed Ogg/Vorbis, MP3, FLAC, Ogg/Speex or MPP/MP+
350 (Musepack) filenames.
351 Variables are included
352 using standard shell syntax. Allowed variables are GENRE, ALBUMFILE, ARTISTFILE,
353 TRACKFILE, TRACKNUM, and YEAR. Default is
355 Make sure to use single quotes around this variable. TRACKNUM is
356 automatically zero-padded, when the number of encoded tracks is higher than
357 9. When lower, you can force with '-p' in the command line.
358 .TP
360 Just like OUTPUTFORMAT but for Various Artists discs. Default is whatever
361 OUTPUTFORMAT is set to.
362 .TP
364 Defines how many encoders to run at once. This makes for huge speedups
365 on SMP systems. You should run one encoder per CPU at once for maximum
366 efficiency, although more doesn't hurt very much. Set it "0" when using
367 mp3dist to avoid getting encoding processes in the local host.
368 .TP
370 If set to y, conserves disk space by encoding tracks immediately after
371 reading them. This is substantially slower than normal operation but
372 requires several hundred MB less space to complete the encoding of an
373 entire CD. Use only if your system is low on space and cannot encode as
374 quickly as it can read.
375 .TP
377 If set to y, enables batch mode normalization, which preserves relative
378 volume differences between tracks of an album. Also enables nogap encoding
379 when using the \'lame\' encoder.
380 .TP
381 .B NOGAP
382 Activate the lame's \-\-nogap option, that allows files found in CDs with no
383 silence between songs (such as live concerts) to be encoded without noticeable
384 gaps. WARNING: lame's \-\-nogap disables the Xing mp3 tag. This tag is
385 required for mp3 players to correctly display track lengths when playing
386 variable-bit-rate mp3 files.
387 .TP
389 Specifies the format for completed playlist filenames. Works like the
390 OUTPUTFORMAT configuration variable. Default is
391 \'${ARTISTFILE}_\-_${ALBUMFILE}.m3u\'.
392 Make sure to use single quotes around this variable.
393 .TP
395 Specifies a prefix for filenames within a playlist. Useful for http
396 playlists, etc.
397 .TP
399 If set, the resulting playlist will have CR-LF line endings, needed by some
400 hardware-based players.
401 .TP
403 Specifies a comment to embed in the ID3 or Ogg comment field of each
404 finished track. Can be up to 28 characters long. Supports the same
405 syntax as OUTPUTFORMAT. Does not currently support ID3v2.
406 .TP
408 Specifies a comma-delimited list of systems to use for remote encoding using
409 distmp3. Equivalent to -r.
410 .TP
411 .B mungefilename
412 mungefilename() is an abcde shell function that can be overridden via
413 abcde.conf. It takes CDDB data as $1 and outputs the resulting filename on
414 stdout. It defaults to eating control characters, apostrophes and
415 question marks, translating spaces and forward slashes to underscores, and
416 translating colons to an underscore and a hyphen.
417 .br
418 If you modify this function, it is probably a good idea to keep the forward
419 slash munging (UNIX cannot store a file with a '/' char in it) as well as
420 the control character munging (NULs can't be in a filename either, and
421 newlines and such in filenames are typically not desirable).
422 .TP
423 .B mungegenre
424 mungegenre () is a shell function used to modify the $GENRE variable. As
425 a default action, it takes $GENRE as $1 and outputs the resulting value
426 to stdout converting all UPPERCASE characters to lowercase.
427 .TP
428 .B pre_read
429 pre_read () is a shell function which is executed before the CDROM is read
430 for the first time, during abcde execution. It can be used to close the CDROM
431 tray, to set its speed (via "setcd" or via "eject", if available) and other
432 preparation actions. The default function is empty.
433 .TP
434 .B post_read
435 post_read () is a shell function which is executed after the CDROM is read
436 (and, if applies, before the CDROM is ejected). It can be used to read a TOC
437 from the CDROM, or to try to read the DATA areas from the CD (if any exist).
438 The default function is empty.
439 .TP
441 If set to "y", abcde will call eject(1) to eject the cdrom from the drive
442 after all tracks have been read. It has no effect when CDROM is set to a flac
443 file.
444 .TP
446 If set to "y", some operations which are usually now shown to the end user
447 are visible, such as CDDB queries. Useful for initial debug and if your
448 network/CDDB server is slow.
450 Possible ways one can call abcde
451 .TP
452 .B abcde
453 Will work in most systems
454 .TP
455 .B abcde \-d /dev/cdrom2
456 If the CDROM you are reding from is not the standard /dev/cdrom (in GNU/Linux systems)
457 .TP
458 .B abcde \-o vorbis,flac
459 Will create both Ogg/Vorbis and Ogg/FLAC files.
460 .TP
461 .B abcde \-o vorbis:"-b 192"
462 Will pass "-b 192" to the Ogg/Vorbis encoder, without having to modify the
463 config file
464 .TP
465 .B abcde \-W 1
466 For double+ CD settings: will create the 1st CD starting with the track number
467 101, and will add a comment "CD 1" to the tracks, the second starting with 201
468 and so on.
469 .TP
470 .B abcde \-d singletrack.flac
471 Will extract the files contained in singletrack using the embeded cuesheet.
473 abcde requires the following backend tools to work:
474 .TP
475 .B *
476 An Ogg/Vorbis, MP3, FLAC, Ogg/Speex or MPP/MP+(Musepack) encoder (oggenc, vorbize, lame, gogo, bladeenc, l3enc, mp3enc, flac, speexenc, mppenc)
477 .TP
478 .B *
479 An audio CD reading utility (cdparanoia, cdda2wav, dagrab)
480 .TP
481 .B *
482 cd-discid, a CDDB DiscID reading program.
483 .TP
484 .B *
485 An HTTP retrieval program: wget, fetch (FreeBSD) or curl (Mac OS X, among others).
486 .TP
487 .B *
488 (for MP3s) id3 or id3v2, id3 v1 and v2 tagging programs.
489 .TP
490 .B *
491 (optional) distmp3, a client/server for distributed mp3 encoding.
492 .TP
493 .B *
494 (optional) normalize-audio, a WAV file volume normalizer.
495 .TP
496 .B *
497 (optional) a replaygain file volume modifier (vorbisgain, metaflac, mp3gain),
498 .TP
499 .B *
500 (optional) mkcue, a CD cuesheet extractor.
501 .SH "SEE ALSO"
502 .BR cdparanoia (1),
503 .BR cdda2wav (1),
504 .BR dagrab (1),
505 .BR normalize-audio (1),
506 .BR oggenc (1),
507 .BR vorbize (1),
508 .BR flac (1),
509 .BR toolame (1),
510 .BR speexenc (1),
511 .BR mppenc (1),
512 .BR id3 (1),
513 .BR id3v2 (1),
514 .BR wget (1),
515 .BR fetch (1),
516 .BR cd-discid (1),
517 .BR distmp3 (1),
518 .BR distmp3host (1),
519 .BR curl (1),
520 .BR mkcue (1),
521 .BR vorbisgain (1),
522 .BR mp3gain (1)
524 Robert Woodcock <>,
525 Jesus Climent <> and contributions from many others.