Fix broken range code, patch from Charles Steinkuehler
[clinton/abcde.git] / abcde.1
1 .TH abcde 1
3 abcde \- Grab an entire CD and compress it to Ogg/Vorbis, MP3, FLAC, Ogg/Speex and/or MPP/MP+(Musepack) format.
5 .B abcde
6 .I [options] [tracks]
8 Ordinarily, the process of grabbing the data off a CD and encoding it, then
9 tagging or commenting it, is very involved.
10 .BR abcde
11 is designed to automate this. It will take an entire CD and convert it into
12 a compressed audio format - Ogg/Vorbis, MPEG Audio Layer III, Free Lossless
13 Audio Codec (FLAC), Ogg/Speex, MPP/MP+(Musepack) and/or M4A (AAC) format(s).
14 With one command, it will:
15 .TP
16 .B *
17 Do a CDDB query over the Internet to look up your CD or use a locally stored CDDB entry
18 .TP
19 .B *
20 Grab an audio track (or all the audio CD tracks) from your CD
21 .TP
22 .B *
23 Normalize the volume of the individual file (or the album as a single unit)
24 .TP
25 .B *
26 Compress to Ogg/Vorbis, MP3, FLAC, Ogg/Speex, MPP/MP+(Musepack) and/or M4A format(s), all in one CD read
27 .TP
28 .B *
29 Comment or ID3/ID3v2 tag
30 .TP
31 .B *
32 Give an intelligible filename
33 .TP
34 .B *
35 Calculate replaygain values for the individual file (or the album as a single unit)
36 .TP
37 .B *
38 Delete the intermediate WAV file (or save it for later use)
39 .TP
40 .B *
41 Repeat until finished
42 .P
43 Alternatively,
44 .B abcde
45 can also grab a CD and turn it into a single FLAC file with an embedded
46 cuesheet which can be user later on as a source for other formats, and will be
47 treated as if it was the original CD. In a way,
48 .B abcde
49 can take a compressed backup of your CD collection.
51 .TP
52 .B \-1
53 Encode the whole CD in a single file. The resulting file uses the CD title
54 for tagging. If the resulting format is a flac file with an embedded cuesheet,
55 the file can be used as a source for creating other formats. Use "-1 -o
56 flac -a default,cue" for obtaining such a file.
57 .TP
58 .B \-a [actions]
59 Comma-delimited list of actions to perform. Can be one or more of: cddb, cue,
60 read, normalize, encode, tag, move, replaygain, playlist, clean. Normalize and
61 encode imply read. Tag implies cddb, read, encode. Move implies cddb, read,
62 encode, tag. Replaygain implies cddb, read, encode, tag and move. Playlist
63 implies cddb. The default is to do all actions except cue, normalize,
64 replaygain and playlist.
65 .TP
66 .B \-b
67 Enable batch mode normalization. See the BATCHNORM configuration variable.
68 .TP
69 .B \-B
70 Disable batch mode replaygain. It processes file by file to add the replaygain
71 information. See the NOBATCHREPLAYGAIN configuration variable.
72 .TP
73 .B \-c [filename]
74 Specifies an additional configuration file to parse. Configuration options
75 in this file override those in /etc/abcde.conf or $HOME/.abcde.conf.
76 .TP
77 .B \-C [discid]
78 Allows you to resume a session for
79 .I discid
80 when you no longer have the CD available (abcde will automatically resume if
81 you still have the CD in the drive). You must have already finished at
82 least the "read" action during the previous session.
83 .TP
84 .B \-d [devicename | filename]
85 CD\-ROM block device that contains audio tracks to be read. Alternatively, a
86 single-track flac file with embedded cuesheet.
87 .TP
88 .B \-D
89 Capture debugging information (you'll want to redirect this \- try 'abcde \-D
90 2>logfile')
91 .TP
92 .B \-e
93 Erase information about encoded tracks from the internal status file, to enable
94 other encodings if the wav files have been kept.
95 .TP
96 .B \-f
97 Force the removal of the temporary ABCDETEMPDIR directory, even when we have
98 not finished. For example, one can read and encode several formats, including
99 \'.ogg\', and later on execute a \'move\' action with only one of the given
100 formats. On a normal situation it would erase the rest of those encoded
101 formats. In this case, abcde will refuse to execute such command, except if \-f
102 is used.
103 .TP
104 .B \-g
105 Enable lame's \-\-nogap option. See the NOGAP variable. WARNING: lame's
106 \-\-nogap disables the Xing mp3 tag. This tag is required for mp3 players to
107 correctly display track lengths when playing variable-bit-rate mp3 files.
108 .TP
109 .B \-h
110 Get help information.
111 .TP
112 .B \-j [number]
113 Start [number] encoder processes at once. Useful for SMP systems. Overrides
114 the MAXPROCS configuration variable. Set it to "0" when using distmp3 to avoid
115 local encoding processes.
116 .TP
117 .B \-k
118 Keep the wav files after encoding.
119 .TP
120 .B \-l
121 Use the low-diskspace algorithm. See the LOWDISK configuration variable.
122 .TP
123 .B \-L
124 Use a local CDDB repository. See CDDBLOCALDIR variable.
125 .TP
126 .B \-n
127 Do not query CDDB database. Create and use a template. Edit the template to
128 provide song names, artist(s), ...
129 .TP
130 .B \-N
131 Non interactive mode. Do not ask anything from the user. Just go ahead.
132 .TP
133 .B \-m
134 Create DOS-style playlists, modifying the resulting one by adding CRLF line
135 endings. Some hardware players insist on having those to work.
136 .TP
137 .B \-o [filetype][:filetypeoptions]
138 Select output type. Can be "vorbis" (or "ogg"), "mp3", "flac", "spx", "mpc",
139 "m4a" or "wav". Specify a comma-delimited list of output types to obtain all
140 specified types. See the OUTPUTTYPE configuration variable. One can pass
141 options to the encoder for a specific filetype on the command line separating
142 them with a colon. The options must be escaped with double-quotes.
143 .TP
144 .B \-p
145 Pads track numbers with 0\'s.
146 .TP
147 .B \-P
148 Use Unix PIPES to read and encode in one step. It disables multiple encodings,
149 since the WAV audio file is never stored in the disc.
150 .TP
151 .B \-q [quality]
152 Use a pre-defined quality level for the encoding process. Defined as low,
153 medium or high. The "medium" value is used to reset the default values if other
154 are used in the config file(s).
155 .TP
156 .B \-r [hosts...]
157 Remote encode on this comma-delimited list of machines using distmp3. See
158 the REMOTEHOSTS configuration variable.
159 .TP
160 .B \-R
161 When CDDBLOCALDIR and CDDBUSELOCAL are defined, search recursively under the
162 defined directory for matches of the CDDB entry.
163 .TP
164 .B \-s [fields...]
165 List, separated by commas, the fields to be shown in the CDDB parsed entries.
166 Right now it only uses "year" and "genre".
167 .TP
168 .B \-S [speed]
169 Set the speed of the CD drive. Needs CDSPEED and CDSPEEDOPTS set properly
170 and both the program and device must support the capability.
171 .TP
172 .B \-t [number]
173 Start the numbering of the tracks at a given number. It only affects the
174 filenames and the playlist. Internal (tag) numbering remains the same.
175 .TP
176 .B \-T [number]
177 Same as \-t but changes also the internal (tag) numbering. Keep in mind that
178 the default TRACK tag for MP3 is $T/$TRACKS so it is changed to simply $T.
179 .TP
180 .B \-U
181 Set CDDBPROTO to version 5, so that we retrieve ISO-8859-15 encoded CDDB
182 information, and we tag and add comments with Latin1 encoding.
183 .TP
184 .B \-v
185 Show the version and exit
186 .TP
187 .B \-V
188 Be a bit more verbose. On slow networks the CDDB requests might give the
189 sensation nothing is happening.
190 .TP
191 .B \-x
192 Eject the CD when all tracks have been read. See the EJECTCD configuration
193 variable.
194 .TP
195 .B \-X [cue2discid]
196 Use an alternative "cue2discid" implementation. The name of the binary must be
197 exactly that. abcde comes with an implementation in python under the examples
198 directory. The special keyword "builtin" forces the usage of the internal
199 (default) implementation in shell script.
200 .TP
201 .B \-w [comment]
202 Add a comment to the tracks ripped from the CD.
203 .TP
204 .B \-W [number]
205 Concatenate CD\'s. It uses the number provided to define a comment "CD #" and
206 to modify the numbering of the tracks, starting with "#01". For Ogg/Vorbis and
207 FLAC files, it also defines a DISCNUMBER tag.
208 .TP
209 .B \-z
210 DEBUG mode: it will rip, using cdparanoia, the very first second of each track
211 and proceed with the actions requested very quickly, also providing some
212 "hidden" information about what happens on the background. CAUTION: IT WILL
214 .TP
215 .B [tracks]
216 A list of tracks you want abcde to process. If this isn't specified, abcde
217 will process the entire CD. Accepts ranges of track numbers -
218 "abcde 1-5 7 9" will process tracks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9.
220 Each track is, by default, placed in a separate file named after the track
221 in a subdirectory named after the artist under the current directory.
222 This can be modified using the OUTPUTFORMAT and VAOUTPUTFORMAT
223 variables in your abcde.conf. Each file is given an extension identifying
224 its compression format, 'vorbis' for '.ogg', '.mp3', '.flac', '.spx', '.mpc', '.aac' or '.wav'.
226 abcde sources two configuration files on startup - /etc/abcde.conf and
227 $HOME/.abcde.conf, in that order.
228 .TP
229 The configuration options stated on those files can be overridden by providing
230 the appropriate flags at runtime.
231 .TP
232 The configuration variables have to be set as follows:
233 .TP
234 .B VARIABLE=value
235 Except when "value" needs to be quoted or otherwise interpreted. If other
236 variables within "value" are to be expanded upon reading the configuration
237 file, then double quotes should be used. If they are only supposed to be
238 expanded upon use (for example OUTPUTFORMAT) then single quotes must be used.
239 .TP
240 All sh escaping/quoting rules apply.
241 .TP
242 Here is a list of options abcde recognizes:
243 .TP
245 Specifies the method we want to use to retrieve the track information. Two
246 values are recognized: "cddb" and "musicbrainz". The "cddb" value needs the
247 CDDBURL and HELLOINFO variables described below. The "musicbrainz" value uses
248 Python to establish a conversation with the server for information retrieval.
249 .TP
251 Specifies a server to use for CDDB lookups.
252 .TP
254 Specifies the protocol version used for the CDDB retrieval of results. Version
255 6 retrieves CDDB entries in UTF-8 format.
256 .TP
258 Specifies the Hello information to send to the CDDB server. The CDDB
259 protocol requires you to send a valid username and hostname each time you
260 connect. The format of this is username@hostname.
261 .TP
263 Specifies a directory where we store a local CDDB repository. The entries must
264 be standard CDDB entries, with the filename being the DISCID value. Other
265 CD playing and ripping programs (like Grip) store the entries under ~/.cddb
266 and we can make use of those entries.
267 .TP
269 Specifies if the CDDBLOCALDIR has to be searched recursively trying to find a
270 match for the CDDB entry. If a match is found and selected, and CDDBCOPYLOCAL
271 is selected, it will be copied to the root of the CDDBLOCALDIR if
272 CDDBLOCALPOLICY is "modified" or "new".
273 .TP
275 Defines when a CDDB entry should be stored in the defined CDDBLOCALDIR. The
276 possible policies are: "net" for a CDDB entry which has been received from the
277 net (overwriting any possible local CDDB entry); "new" for a CDDB entry which
278 was received from the net, but will request confirmation to overwrite a local
279 CDDB entry found in the root of the CDDBLOCALDIR directory; "modified" for a
280 CDDB entry found in the local repository but which has been modified by the
281 user; and "always" which forces the CDDB entry to be stored back in the root of
282 the CDDBLOCALDIR no matter where it was found, and no matter it was not edited.
283 This last option will always overwrite the one found in the root of the local
284 repository (if any). STILL NOT WORKING!!
285 .TP
287 Store local copies of the CDDB entries under the $CDDBLOCALDIR directory.
288 .TP
290 Actually use the stored copies of the CDDB entries. Can be overridden using the
291 "-L" flag (if is CDDBUSELOCAL in "n"). If an entry is found, we always give
292 the choice of retrieving a CDDB entry from the internet.
293 .TP
295 Coma-separated list of fields we want to parse during the CDDB parsing.
296 Defaults to "year,genre".
297 .TP
299 Specifies the style of encoder to use for the Ogg/Vorbis encoder. Valid options
300 are \'oggenc\' (default for Ogg/Vorbis) and \'vorbize\'.
301 This affects the default location of the binary,
302 the variable to pick encoder command-line options from, and where the options
303 are given.
304 .TP
306 Specifies the style of encoder to use for the MP3 encoder. Valid options are
307 \'lame\' (default for MP3), \'gogo\', \'bladeenc\', \'l3enc\' and \'mp3enc\'.
308 Affects the same way as explained above for Ogg/Vorbis.
309 .TP
311 Specifies the style of encoder to use for the FLAC encoder. At this point only
312 \'flac\' is available for FLAC encoding.
313 .TP
315 Specifies the style of encoder to use for Speex encoder. At this point only
316 \'speexenc\' is available for Ogg/Speex encoding.
317 .TP
319 Specifies the style of encoder to use for MPP/MP+ (Musepack) encoder. At this
320 point we only have \'mppenc\' available, from
321 .TP
323 Specifies the style of encoder to use for M4A (AAC) encoder. At this point we
324 only support \'faac\', so \'default\' points to it.
325 .TP
327 Specifies the style of normalizer to use. Valid options are \'default\'
328 and \'normalize'\ (and both run \'normalize-audio\'), since we only support it,
329 ATM.
330 .TP
332 Specifies the style of cdrom reader to use. Valid options are \'cdparanoia\',
333 \'debug\' and \'flac\'. It is used for querying the CDROM and obtain a list of
334 valid tracks and DATA tracks. The special \'flac\' case is used to "rip" CD
335 tracks from a single-track flac file.
336 .TP
338 Specifies the syntax of the program we use to read the CD CUE sheet. Right now
339 we only support \'mkcue\', but in the future other readers might be used.
340 .TP
342 It defaults to no, so if you want to keep those wavs ripped from your CD,
343 set it to "y". You can use the "-k" switch in the command line. The default
344 behaviour with KEEPWAVS set is to keep the temporary directory and the wav
345 files even you have requested the "clean" action.
346 .TP
348 If set to "y", it adds 0's to the file numbers to complete a two-number
349 holder. Useful when encoding tracks 1-9.
350 .TP
352 Set to "n" if you want to perform automatic rips, without user intervention.
353 .TP
355 Define the values for priorities (nice values) for the different CPU-hungry
356 processes: encoding (ENCNICE), CDROM read (READNICE) and distributed encoder
357 with distmp3 (DISTMP3NICE).
358 .TP
360 The following configuration file options specify the pathnames of their
361 respective utilities: LAME, TOOLAME, GOGO, BLADEENC, L3ENC, XINGMP3ENC, MP3ENC,
365 CUE2DISCID (see option "\-X"), DIFF and HTTPGET.
366 .TP
368 If you wish to specify command-line options to any of the programs abcde uses,
369 set the following configuration file options: LAMEOPTS, TOOLAMEOPTS, GOGOOPTS,
375 .TP
377 Set the value of the CDROM speed. The default is to read the disc as fast as
378 the reading program and the system permits. The steps are defined as 150kB/s
379 (1x).
380 .TP
382 The default actions to be performed when reading a disc.
383 .TP
384 .B CDROM
385 If set, it points to the CD-Rom device which has to be used for audio
386 extraction. Abcde tries to guess the right device, but it may fail. The special
387 \'flac\' option is defined to extract tracks from a single-track flac file.
388 .TP
390 Defined as "d" when using cdparanoia with an IDE bus and as "g" when using
391 cdparanoia with the ide-scsi emulation layer.
392 .TP
394 Specifies the directory to place completed tracks/playlists in.
395 .TP
397 Specifies the temporary directory to store .wav files in. Abcde may use up
398 to 700MB of temporary space for each session (although it is rare to use
399 over 100MB for a machine that can encode music as fast as it can read it).
400 .TP
402 Specifies the encoding format to output, as well as the default extension and
403 encoder. Defaults to "vorbis". Valid settings are "vorbis" (or "ogg")
404 (Ogg/Vorbis), "mp3" (MPEG-1 Audio Layer III), "flac" (Free Lossless Audio
405 Codec), "spx" (Ogg/Speex), "mpc" (MPP/MP+ (Musepack)), "m4a" (for M4A (AAC)) or
406 "wav" (Microsoft Waveform). Values like "vorbis,mp3" encode the tracks in both
407 Ogg/Vorbis and MP3 formats.
408 .br
409 For each value in OUTPUTTYPE, abcde expands a different process for encoding,
410 tagging and moving, so you can use the format placeholder, OUTPUT, to create
411 different subdirectories to hold the different types. The variable OUTPUT will
412 be 'vorbis', 'mp3', 'flac', 'spx', 'mpc', 'm4a' and/or 'wav', depending on the
413 OUTPUTTYPE you define. For example
414 .br
416 .TP
418 Specifies the format for completed Ogg/Vorbis, MP3, FLAC, Ogg/Speex, MPP/MP+
419 (Musepack) or M4A filenames. Variables are included using standard shell
420 syntax. Allowed variables are GENRE, ALBUMFILE, ARTISTFILE, TRACKFILE,
422 Make sure to use single quotes around this variable. TRACKNUM is automatically
423 zero-padded, when the number of encoded tracks is higher than 9. When lower,
424 you can force with '-p' in the command line.
425 .TP
427 Just like OUTPUTFORMAT but for Various Artists discs. The default is 'Various-${ALBUMFILE}/${TRACKNUM}.${ARTISTFILE}-${TRACKFILE}'
428 .TP
430 Just like OUTPUTFORMAT but for single-track rips (see option "\-1"). The default is '${ARTISTFILE}-${ALBUMFILE}/${ALBUMFILE}'
431 .TP
433 Just like ONETRACKOUTPUTFORMAT but for Various Artists discs. The default is 'Various-${ALBUMFILE}/${ALBUMFILE}'
434 .TP
436 Defines how many encoders to run at once. This makes for huge speedups
437 on SMP systems. You should run one encoder per CPU at once for maximum
438 efficiency, although more doesn't hurt very much. Set it "0" when using
439 mp3dist to avoid getting encoding processes in the local host.
440 .TP
442 If set to y, conserves disk space by encoding tracks immediately after
443 reading them. This is substantially slower than normal operation but
444 requires several hundred MB less space to complete the encoding of an
445 entire CD. Use only if your system is low on space and cannot encode as
446 quickly as it can read.
447 .TP
449 If set to y, enables batch mode normalization, which preserves relative
450 volume differences between tracks of an album. Also enables nogap encoding
451 when using the \'lame\' encoder.
452 .TP
453 .B NOGAP
454 Activate the lame's \-\-nogap option, that allows files found in CDs with no
455 silence between songs (such as live concerts) to be encoded without noticeable
456 gaps. WARNING: lame's \-\-nogap disables the Xing mp3 tag. This tag is
457 required for mp3 players to correctly display track lengths when playing
458 variable-bit-rate mp3 files.
459 .TP
461 Specifies the format for completed playlist filenames. Works like the
462 OUTPUTFORMAT configuration variable. Default is
463 \'${ARTISTFILE}_\-_${ALBUMFILE}.m3u\'.
464 Make sure to use single quotes around this variable.
465 .TP
467 Specifies a prefix for filenames within a playlist. Useful for http
468 playlists, etc.
469 .TP
471 If set, the resulting playlist will have CR-LF line endings, needed by some
472 hardware-based players.
473 .TP
475 Specifies a comment to embed in the ID3 or Ogg comment field of each
476 finished track. Can be up to 28 characters long. Supports the same
477 syntax as OUTPUTFORMAT. Does not currently support ID3v2.
478 .TP
480 Specifies a comma-delimited list of systems to use for remote encoding using
481 distmp3. Equivalent to -r.
482 .TP
483 .B mungefilename
484 mungefilename() is an abcde shell function that can be overridden via
485 abcde.conf. It takes CDDB data as $1 and outputs the resulting filename on
486 stdout. It defaults to eating control characters, apostrophes and
487 question marks, translating spaces and forward slashes to underscores, and
488 translating colons to an underscore and a hyphen.
489 .br
490 If you modify this function, it is probably a good idea to keep the forward
491 slash munging (UNIX cannot store a file with a '/' char in it) as well as
492 the control character munging (NULs can't be in a filename either, and
493 newlines and such in filenames are typically not desirable).
494 .TP
495 .B mungegenre
496 mungegenre () is a shell function used to modify the $GENRE variable. As
497 a default action, it takes $GENRE as $1 and outputs the resulting value
498 to stdout converting all UPPERCASE characters to lowercase.
499 .TP
500 .B pre_read
501 pre_read () is a shell function which is executed before the CDROM is read
502 for the first time, during abcde execution. It can be used to close the CDROM
503 tray, to set its speed (via "setcd" or via "eject", if available) and other
504 preparation actions. The default function is empty.
505 .TP
506 .B post_read
507 post_read () is a shell function which is executed after the CDROM is read
508 (and, if applies, before the CDROM is ejected). It can be used to read a TOC
509 from the CDROM, or to try to read the DATA areas from the CD (if any exist).
510 The default function is empty.
511 .TP
513 If set to "y", abcde will call eject(1) to eject the cdrom from the drive
514 after all tracks have been read. It has no effect when CDROM is set to a flac
515 file.
516 .TP
518 If set to "y", some operations which are usually now shown to the end user
519 are visible, such as CDDB queries. Useful for initial debug and if your
520 network/CDDB server is slow.
522 Possible ways one can call abcde
523 .TP
524 .B abcde
525 Will work in most systems
526 .TP
527 .B abcde \-d /dev/cdrom2
528 If the CDROM you are reading from is not the standard /dev/cdrom (in GNU/Linux systems)
529 .TP
530 .B abcde \-o vorbis,flac
531 Will create both Ogg/Vorbis and Ogg/FLAC files.
532 .TP
533 .B abcde \-o vorbis:"-b 192"
534 Will pass "-b 192" to the Ogg/Vorbis encoder, without having to modify the
535 config file
536 .TP
537 .B abcde \-W 1
538 For double+ CD settings: will create the 1st CD starting with the track number
539 101, and will add a comment "CD 1" to the tracks, the second starting with 201
540 and so on.
541 .TP
542 .B abcde \-d singletrack.flac
543 Will extract the files contained in singletrack using the embedded cuesheet.
545 abcde requires the following backend tools to work:
546 .TP
547 .B *
548 An Ogg/Vorbis, MP3, FLAC, Ogg/Speex, MPP/MP+(Musepack) or M4A encoder (oggenc, vorbize, lame, gogo, bladeenc, l3enc, mp3enc, flac, speexenc, mppenc, faac)
549 .TP
550 .B *
551 An audio CD reading utility (cdparanoia, cdda2wav, dagrab)
552 .TP
553 .B *
554 cd-discid, a CDDB DiscID reading program.
555 .TP
556 .B *
557 An HTTP retrieval program: wget, fetch (FreeBSD) or curl (Mac OS X, among others). Alternatively, musicbrainz-get-tracks (which depends on Python) can be used to retrieve CDDB information about the CD.
558 .TP
559 .B *
560 (for MP3s) id3 or id3v2, id3 v1 and v2 tagging programs.
561 .TP
562 .B *
563 (optional) distmp3, a client/server for distributed mp3 encoding.
564 .TP
565 .B *
566 (optional) normalize-audio, a WAV file volume normalizer.
567 .TP
568 .B *
569 (optional) a replaygain file volume modifier (vorbisgain, metaflac, mp3gain, replaygain),
570 .TP
571 .B *
572 (optional) mkcue, a CD cuesheet extractor.
573 .SH "SEE ALSO"
574 .BR cdparanoia (1),
575 .BR cdda2wav (1),
576 .BR dagrab (1),
577 .BR normalize-audio (1),
578 .BR oggenc (1),
579 .BR vorbize (1),
580 .BR flac (1),
581 .BR toolame (1),
582 .BR speexenc (1),
583 .BR mppenc (1),
584 .BR faac (1),
585 .BR id3 (1),
586 .BR id3v2 (1),
587 .BR wget (1),
588 .BR fetch (1),
589 .BR cd-discid (1),
590 .BR distmp3 (1),
591 .BR distmp3host (1),
592 .BR curl (1),
593 .BR mkcue (1),
594 .BR vorbisgain (1),
595 .BR mp3gain (1)
597 Robert Woodcock <>,
598 Jesus Climent <> and contributions from many others.